CHOCOLATE BRANCO

Apesar do nome, chocolate branco não contém chocolate. O produto é composto de manteiga de cacau misturada a leite e açúcar. Ou seja, não rola nenhuma particula daqueles grãos de cacau que conferem cor e sabor ao chocolate legítimo. Para piorar, alguns “chocolates” brancos são feitos de óleos vegetais no lugar da manteiga de cacau.

Então, antes de comer um chocolate, na escolha, opte por meio amargo a cima, 28g ao dia.

chocolate branco

Os números de 2012

Os duendes de estatísticas do WordPress.com prepararam um relatório para o ano de 2012 deste blog.

Aqui está um resumo:

600 pessoas chegaram ao topo do Monte Everest em 2012. Este blog tem cerca de 5.700 visualizações em 2012. Se cada pessoa que chegou ao topo do Monte Everest visitasse este blog, levaria 10 anos para ter este tanto de visitação.

Clique aqui para ver o relatório completo

Do helminth parasites protect against atopy and allergic disease?

Summary

Allergic diseases are rare in areas with high helminth parasite exposure and common where helminth exposure is lacking or significantly reduced, such as urban areas of developing countries and industrialized nations. Studies suggest that helminths induce a systemic immuno-modulatory network, including regulatory T cells and anti-inflammatory IL-10,which might play a key role in the protection against the allergic phenotype. Here, we review the current cross-sectional, birth cohort, and intervention study evidence for a protective effect of helminth infection on allergy. There is increasing evidence for a causal relationship between helminth infection and reduced skin prick test responsiveness to allergens. Cross-sectional studies have shown a consistent negative relationship, and these results have been confirmed in several, although not all, intervention studies. The immunological basis for this protective effect is less clear. Recent studies do not support the mast-cell IgE saturation hypothesis, but suggest that protection is associated with IL-10 production. As for allergic disease, cross-sectional studies support a negative relationship between clinical asthma and infection with some helminth species, particularly hookworm, but more studies are required to draw conclusions for eczema and rhinitis. In addition, none of the few intervention studies to date have demonstrated an increase in clinical allergy after helminth reatment, and further studies are needed. Furthermore, we are only beginning to understand the host genetic factors that are potentially involved. A genetically predetermined T-helper type 2 cell-dominated cytokine milieu reduces parasite burden and may enhance host survival in an environment where helminth parasites are prevalent. Lack of parasite exposure in such hosts might lead to hypersensitivity to seemingly minor environmental allergen stimuli. Large birth cohort studies in helminth-endemic areas that use epidemiological, genetic, and immunological tools are required to further examine how helminth parasites affect the development of atopy and allergic disease. Intervention studies with hookworm in parasite-naı¨ve allergic individuals are currently ongoing in the United Kingdom to test the above hypotheses further.

alergi-atopi-helmin