Emprego na área de UAN


Fiquei sabendo no dia 25/08 que a CHOPERIA PINGUIM de BH esta precisando de nutricionista. É só enviar o seu e-mail para pinguimochoppbhz@terra.com.br
Atenção a Daniela.


Effects of a Stanol-Enriched Diet on Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Patients Treated with Statins


Background Plant stanols have been recommended in combination with individualized dietary interventions to reduce plasma cholesterol concentrations. It is unclear whether plant stanols in combination with dietary guidance in patients already using optimal doses of statins will further reduce fasting and postprandial lipids compared with standard care. Study design This single-blind, randomized study investigated the effect of plant stanols in margarines, combined with a lipid-lowering dietary intervention, in patients already on lipid-lowering medications at maximal doses not reaching their target lipid levels. Nutrition education was based on the stages of change theory. The control group (which served as the standard care control group) was also taking optimal doses of tatins. This group received a margarine without plant stanols and a leaflet with Dutch nutrition guidelines. Fasting lipids were measured once in venous samples and postprandial lipemia was assessed by self-measured triglycerides in an outpatient setting. All subjects were given a capillary triglyceride measuring device (Accutrend GCT, Roche diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) and were instructed to measure their capillary triglycerides at six fixed timepoints throughout the day on three different days. The mean area under the triglyceride curve represented total daylong triglyceridemia, which has been shown to reflect postprandial triglyceridemia. Twenty patients were included, 11 in the intervention group and 9 in the control group. Results In the plant stanol group, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased significantly by 15.6% compared with a reduction of only 7.7% in the control group. The daylong triglyceridemia was similar in both groups at the beginning and at the end of the study, and no change was observed by the intervention. Conclusion Intensive dietary intervention with addition of plant stanols results in clinically relevant reduction of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients optimally treated with statins, compared with similar patients on statins receiving only standard care. The use of a plant stanol-enriched margarine did not decrease postprandial triglyceridemia in these patients


Trans, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vascular function—A yin yang situation?


Trans fatty acids (TFA) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have opposite effects on several biological functions. We report a study on the effects on risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Eighty-seven healthy males were randomly assigned to 8 weeks of daily intake of either 20 g of industrially produced TFA (IP-TFA), 4 g n-3 PUFA, or control fat, incorporated in bakery products as part of the daily food. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased in the TFA-group, triglycerides and mean arterial blood pressure decreased in the n-3 group. Heart rate variability (HRV), arterial dilatory capacity, flow mediated vasodilation, compliance, and distensibility were unchanged. Post hoc, we did a subgroup analysis of the results from the subjects with normal initial HRV. In these, 24-h heart rate (HR) was significantly increased by approximately three beats/min in the TFA group, with a decrease of the same magnitude in the n-3 group. A high HR is associated to an increased mortality and vice versa.
Our results thus support the notion that IP-TFA and n-3 PUFA affect risk for cardiovascular mortality via mechanisms not only related to changes in plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins.


The metabolic syndrome, omega-3 fatty acids and inflammatory processes in relation to schizophrenia


Although schizophrenia is normally regarded as a brain disease, there is clear evidence that schizophrenia is strongly associated with a variety of physical conditions. These include an increased rate of the metabolic syndrome and its physical complications including diabetes and coronary heart disease, and a reduced rate of rheumatoid arthritis. It is argued that these associations may point to a commonality of some aetiological factors. Evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acids in all of these disorders is presented. The associations may derive either from genetic or from environmental factors, including nutrition. Further investigation of these associations may give important clues regarding the aetiology of schizophrenia.


Plasma Phosphatidylcholine Docosahexaenoic Acid Content and Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease


Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an abundant fatty acid in the brain. In the diet, DHA is found mostly in fatty fish. The content of DHA has been shown to be decreased in the brain and plasma of patients with dementia.
Objective: To determine whether plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC) DHA content is associated with the risk of developing dementia.
Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective follow- up study in 899 men and women who were free of dementia at baseline, had a median age of 76.0 years, and were followed up for a mean of 9.1 years for the development of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer disease.
Main Outcome Measures: Plasma PC fatty acid levels were measured at baseline. Cox proportional regression analysis was used to assess relative risks of allcause dementia and Alzheimer disease according to baseline plasma levels. Results: Ninety-nine new cases of dementia (including 71 of Alzheimer disease) occurred during the followup. after adjustment for age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele, plasma homocysteine concentration, and education level, subjects in the upper quartile of baseline plasma PC DHA levels, compared with subjects in the lower 3 quartiles, had a relative risk of 0.53 of developing allcause dementia (95% confidence interval, 0.29-0.97; P=.04) and 0.61 of developing Alzheimer disease (95% confidence interval, 0.31-1.18; P=.14). Subjects in the upper quartile of plasma PC DHA levels had a mean DHA intake of 0.18 g/d and a mean fish intake of 3.0 servings per week (P.001) in a subset of 488 participants. We found no other significant associations.
Conclusion: The top quartile of plasma PC DHA level was associated with a significant 47% reduction in the risk of developing all-cause dementia in the Framingham Heart Study.


Omega-3 LC-PUFA Supply and Neurological Outcomes in Children With Phenylketonuria (PKU)


Children with phenylketonuria (PKU) follow a diet with very low intakes of natural protein, which is devoid of food sources of the omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). A resulting DHA depletion has been demonstrated in PKU children and may account for detectable subtle neurological deficits that are not explained by variation in plasma phenylalanine concentrations. We supplemented 36 children with PKU ages 1 to 11 years for 3 months with encapsulated fish oil providing a daily dose of 15mg DHA/kg body weight. DHA supplementation resulted in significantly faster visual evoked potential latencies, indicating more rapid central nervous system information processing. In addition, DHA significantly improved outcomes in a test of motor function and coordination. No changes over time were seen in age-matched healthy controls. Because the PKU children had a good supply of the omega-3 precursor alphalinolenic acid, these observations lead us to conclude that endogenous conversion of alpha-linolenic acid is not sufficient to provide adequate amounts of DHA that support optimal function, and hence DHA appears to be a conditional essential substrate for children with PKU. Because early treated PKU children are healthy, with normal fatty acid turnover, these data may indicate a need to supply some DHA to children in general. Further studies are ongoing aiming at establishing quantitative DHA requirements in children.