OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a yoghurt containing a novel fat emulsion on energy and macronutrient intakes up to(OlibraTM) on energy and macronutrient intakes up to 36 h post-consumption

Objective: To investigate the dose – response effects of a novel fat emulsion (OlibraTM) on energy and macronutrient intakes up to 36 h post-consumption in non-overweight subjects.
Design: A single-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject cross-over design was used. Setting: Metabolic suite of the University of Ulster, Coleraine.
Subjects: Fifty subjects (30 female, 20 male) from the student and staff population of the University of Ulster, Coleraine. Interventions: Subjects were given in random order, 7 days apart, a 200 g portion of yoghurt containing a total of 15 g of at, which varied in quantity of OlibraTM fat (0, 2, 4, 6 g) at 09:00 h. At 13:00 h subjects were given ad libitum access to a range of foods. Amounts of food consumed were measured by covert pre- and post-consumption weighing of individual serving dishes. For the remainder of the day and the following 24 h, subjects weighed and recorded all food intakes.
Results: Relative to the control yoghurt, mean energy (7.42 vs 5.83, 5.60, 5.24 MJ), fat (97.4 vs 74.4, 74.2, 67.5 g; 48.8 vs 46.8, 48.9, 47.6% energy), protein (59.1 vs 50.0, 44.0, 40.8 g; 13.2 vs 13.9, 12.9, 12.8% energy), and carbohydrate (171.5 vs 140.9, 130.2, 126.0 g; 38.0 vs 39.3, 38.2, 39.6% energy), intakes were progressively reduced with increasing doses of OlibraTM fat in the total group (P <0.001). A similar response was observed in the female group up to 4 g (P <0.001) and in the male group after 2 and 6 g (P <0.05). Energy and macronutrient intakes for the remainder of each study day and over the following 24 h were significantly lower after all dose levels compared to the control (P <0.001).
Conclusion: The results suggest that OlibraTM fat reduced the effect of overeating during an ad libitum lunch meal and subsequent food intake up to 36 h post-consumption.

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The effects of yoghurt containing a novel fat emulsion on energy and macronutrient intakes in nonoverweight overweight and obese subjects

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a yoghurt containing a novel fat emulsion on energy and macronutrient intakes up to 8 h post-consumption in non-overweight, overweight and obese subjects, and to assess energy compensation over the following 24 h.
DESIGN: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design was used. Twenty (10 female, 10 male) nonoverweight (body mass index (BMI) 20 – 24.9 kg=m2), 20 (10 female, 10 male) overweight (BMI 25 – 29.9 kg=m2) and 20 (13 female, 7 male) obese (BMI>30 kg=m2) subjects participated in the study. Subjects were given in random order, 7 days apart, either a 200 g portion of a test (5 g of a novel fat emulsion‡1 g milk fat) or control (6 g milk fat) yoghurt at 09:00 h. At 4 and 8 h post-consumption subjects were given ad libitum access to a range of foods. Amounts of food consumed were determined by pre and post-covert weighing of individual serving dishes. Over the following 24 h subjects weighed and recorded all food intakes.
RESULTS: Mean energy intakes were significantly lower after the test yoghurt compared with the control yoghurt in nonoverweight (3.79 vs 5.43 MJ; P <0.01) and overweight (4.43 vs 6.12 MJ; P <0.001) subjects 4 h post-consumption and in nonoverweight (3.82 vs 5.38 MJ; P <0.001), overweight (3.94 vs 5.80 MJ; P <0.001) and obese (4.91 vs 6.26 MJ; P <0.01) subjects 8 h post-consumption. The corresponding macronutrient intakes were also significantly reduced in non-overweight and
overweight subjects (P <0.01) at 4 h post-consumption and in all subjects 8 h post-consumption (P <0.01). In the total group, energy intakes over the following 24 h were also significantly reduced (6.35 vs 7.70 MJ; P <0.01) after the test yoghurt relative to the control yoghurt.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the effects of this novel fat emulsion are maintained at least up to 8 h and are evident in non-overweight, overweight and obese subjects.

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Short-term effects of yoghurt containing a novel fat emulsion on energy and macronutrient intakes in non-obese subjects

BACKGROUND: The satiating properties of fat remain poorly understood, particularly with reference to its physicochemical characteristics.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the short-term effects of consumption of yoghurt containing either a novel fat emulsion or normal milk fat, on the energy and macronutrient intakes of non-obese subjects.
DESIGN: Two double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover studies were conducted three months apart. Twenty-nine (15 F, 14 M) and thirty (16 F, 14 M) subjects participated in Study 1 and Study 2 respectively. In each study, subjects were given in random order, 7 days apart, either a 200 g portion of a test (5 g of a novel fat emulsion‡1 g milk fat) or control (6 g milk fat) yoghurt at 1300 h. At 4 h post-consumption subjects were given ad libitum access to a range of foods. Amounts of food consumed by individuals were determined by pre- and post-covert weighing of individual serving dishes. RESULTS: Mean energy intakes were signi®cantly lower after the test yoghurt compared with the control yoghurt in Study 1 (6.4 vs 7.6 MJ; P<0.001), Study 2 (6.9 vs 7.9 MJ; P<0.001), and for both studies combined (6.7 vs 7.7 MJ; P<0.001). The corresponding fat intakes in Study 1, Study 2 and in the combined studies were all signi®cantly reduced (P<0.001). Protein and carbohydrate intakes were also signi®cantly reduced in Study 1 (P<0.05), Study 2 (P<0.01), and for the combined studies (P<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the physicochemical characteristics of small amounts of dietary fat affect short-term satiety.

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Medium-Chain Triglycerides Increase Energy Expenditure and Decrease Adiposity in Overweight Men

Abstract

Objective: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of diets rich in medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs)
or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on body composition, energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, subjective appetite,
and ad libitum energy intake in overweight men. Research Methods and Procedures: Twenty-four healthy, overweight men with body mass indexes between 25 and 31 kg/m2 consumed diets rich in MCT or LCT for 28 days each in a crossover randomized controlled trial. At baseline and after 4 weeks of each dietary intervention, energy expenditure was measured using indirect calorimetry, and body composition was analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging.
Results: Upper body adipose tissue (AT) decreased to a greater extent (p  0.05) with functional oil (FctO) compared with olive oil (OL) consumption (0.67  0.26 kg and 0.02  0.19 kg, respectively). There was a trend toward greater loss of whole-body subcutaneous AT volume (p  0.087) with FctO compared with OL consumption. Average energy expenditure was 0.04  0.02 kcal/min greater (p  0.05) on day 2 and 0.03  0.02 kcal/min (not significant) on day 28 with FctO compared with OL consumption. Similarly, average fat oxidation was greater (p  0.052) with FctO compared with OL intake on day 2 but not
day 28.

Discussion: Consumption of a diet rich in MCTs results in greater loss of AT compared with LCTs, perhaps due to increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation observed with MCT intake. Thus, MCTs may be considered as agents that aid in the prevention of obesity or potentially stimulate weight loss.

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